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AscanbeseenfromFig.2(Left),largepartsofthelandsurface of the earth are covered by cellular telecommunication networks [20% in 2007 (11)]. Precipitation is defined as any kind of water that falls from clouds as a liquid or a solid. A large fraction of the rain cell area has rather low precipitation intensities. Rain-induced attenuation and, subsequently, path-aver-aged rainfall intensity can be retrieved from the signal’s atten-uation between transmitter and receiver (5–10). Average rainfall is the long-term average in depth (over space and time) of annual precipitation in the country. From these data, the scientists identified more than 44,000 separate precipitation events in the Netherlands, and for each event, the team determined the peak precipitation intensity. RAINFALL INTENSITY GAUGES De Bilt (The Netherlands) Genoa (Italy) Trappes (France) September 2004 Œ September 2005 L. Lanza (Italy) M. Leroy (France) ... precipitation intensity is a secondary parameter, derived from the primary parameter precipitation amount. The intensity profile ... hourly precipitation in the Netherlands across a much larger dew point range [Lenderink and van Meijgaard, 2008; Loriaux et al., 2013]. Brown et al 2013, NYS DoT 2018), urban drainage networks (e.g. The calculation of days only includes the days when precipitation amounted to at least one millimetre (0.04 inches). Using data from the Netherlands, Lenderink and van Meijgaard presented the first analysis of how extreme percentiles of hourly rainfall intensity vary with surface temperature. Historical precipitation records are widely employed by civil engineers to compute intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are essential for the design of infrastructure like highways (e.g. and R.J. Hijmans, 2017. NYS DoEC 1989).Indeed, IDF curves are used to create synthetic … Battaglia et al 2003, Brown et al 2013) and dams (e.g. Their analysis, based on earlier work by Klein Tank et al. Sources and methods: World Precipitation Change 2050s Scenario: IPCC 5AR CIAT downscaled NCAR CCSM4 model under Scenario 8.5 from CCAFS and partners.. Baseline precipitation for 1970-2000 scenario from WorldClim. Rain-induced attenuation and, subsequently, path-averaged rainfall intensity can be retrieved from the signal’s attenuation between transmitter and receiver. The annual amount of precipitation is an average of historical weather data collected over a long period, in most cases 30 years. Average precipitation in depth (mm per year) from The World Bank: Data Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). for rainfall intensity measurements and, in addition, laboratory and field intercomparisons of these gauges are considered to be feasible. 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